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Geography and topology

Located on the eastern Mediterranean coast, the State of Israel is bordered to the north by Lebanon, to the north-east by Syria, to the east by the West Bank and Jordan, to the south-west by the Gaza Strip and Egypt and to the west by the Mediterranean Sea. The southernmost tip of the country reaches the Gulf of Aqaba, an arm of the Red Sea.

The principal topographical features of the region are the temperate and fertile coastal plain and Jezreel and Jordan Valleys; the Galilee highlands; the West Bank (Judean and Samarian) highlands; and the Negev Desert. The River Jordan descends from Mount Hermon on the Lebanon-Syria border through the north of Israel to Lake Tiberias, some 209 metres below sea level; it then flows through the West Bank, emptying into the Dead Sea approximately 400 metres below sea level, the lowest elevation on the surface of the earth.